Diabetes has historically been one of the most serious health issues confronting societies. Diabetes is a chronic condition that has no cure but can be managed with proper care. Long-term effects of the condition are unavoidable, regardless of how effectively blood sugar levels are maintained. The majority of these are related to blood circulation. These include kidney nephropathy, eye retinopathy, neuropathy in the hands and feet, and diabetic foot syndrome.
Foot problems account for 20% of diabetes-related hospitalizations. Diabetes patients account for 50% of all foot amputations in contemporary society, according to research. A podiatrist specializing in foot health aims to give preventive preventive health care services to diabetic patients to ensure that their problem-free foot remains healthy or to lessen clay foot problems.
The cause of the development of diabetic foot syndrome can be evaluated under 2 main headings:
Deterioration in peripheral nerves (Neuropathy)
Diabetic neuropathy is the main cause of wounds on the feet of diabetic patients.
Although neuropathy in diabetic patients manifests in many different ways, the most common form is the feet first.
Tingling and numbness is usually felt in the toes. Initially, these symptoms occur sporadically, but over time they become constant.
After a long time, the complaints in the feet increase to such an extent that the patient is unable to notice the tightness of the shoes, the temperature of the water or injuries to the feet.
The secretion (secretion) of thousands of sweat glands in our feet decreases and stops in the progressive process. Due to the damage to the nerve network, the sweat gland that cannot receive stimulation does not work actively and dryness occurs on the soles of the feet (plantar).
Moisture on the soles of the feet is important for two reasons in diabetic patients:
Moisture reduces the heat effect caused by friction during the contact of the foot in the shoe or with the ground. This prevents the formation of calluses and blisters.
Moisture increases the elasticity of the skin of the foot and the sole. It prevents the formation of tears (ragad), cracks.
With neuropathy in diabetic patients, the skin on the feet is dry, which can lead to cracks, tears and calluses.
Neuropathy in diabetic patients not only causes decreased sweating in the feet, but may also cause sensory nerve damage. A diabetic patient with sensory nerve damage may not feel the foot getting hit in the shoe or compressing the shoe. He/she may not feel an object sinking into his/her foot and live like this for a very long time. Especially elderly people with reduced mobility may not realize this until they have a deep infection in their feet.
Their feet may get cold and therefore they may get heat burns or thermophore burns.
A diabetic with neuropathy in the foot may cut deeply when cutting their nails, damaging the tissue.
Depending on the guidance of the Endocrine physician of the person diagnosed with diabetes, foot examinations by the Podologist can delay or prevent possible risks in the future.
Every patient diagnosed with diabetes is kept under regular foot control with Podologic Complex Care performed by the podologist, or problems such as calluses, ingrown nails, nail thickening, cracks in the sole can be applied by the Podologist.
WHAT DIABETICS SHOULD PAY ATTENTION TO
It is important to protect your feet from trauma, so the features of your shoes should be chosen away from aesthetic concerns.
For shoes www.podoloji.org.tr
The inside of the shoe should be checked by hand before wearing. Are there any pebbles in the shoe or any objects sinking into the sole of the shoe?
Your socks should be cotton, light colored, seamless, and the neck should not squeeze your ankle. Socks that squeeze the neck can be prevented from squeezing by cutting the rubber parts vertically.
*In light-colored socks, you can more easily repair a sharp object that stings or causes bleeding. Staining of your sock will allow you to check your foot and shoes.
Avoid too much contact with heat. Stove, hot water bag, soaking the foot in hot water, heating it with a blow dryer, etc.
*If your feet are very cold, you can wear several pairs of socks on top of each other that you first warmed up with an iron.
Do not cut your nails deep
Do not use acidic products from the pharmacy for calluses on the fingers or soles of the feet.
Moisturize the foot. Use only a moisturizer for this
*Do not use vaseline derivative products as moisturizer.
Dry your feet every time your feet get wet (such as bathing, ablution), including between the toes.
*When drying between the fingers, do not dry by folding and rubbing the towel paper. The saw effect can cause tears between the fingers by combing.
Deterioration of vascular structures (Angiopathy)
It used to be thought that patients with diabetes only had impaired capillaries and therefore developed wounds and that the wounds and incision lines did not heal. Studies have shown that this is not alone. These patients have vascular problems, not only in small vessels but also in large vessels.
In a foot with damaged nerves and blood vessels, there are many "triggers" that initiate the wound. The most common of these are:
Sharp objects such as pebbles, nails, thumbtacks, etc.
Nail deformities, calluses and cracks in the skin.
Diabetics need to pay special attention to their feet, nail deformation in diabetic patients is not abnormal. But it is a condition that requires care. The patient may lose sensation or may not feel the ingrown nail due to circulatory disorders and an infection that may occur there can lead to severe and long-term treatments. For this reason, it is very important that diabetic patients do not have ingrown nails.
Signs of Circulatory Problems
Changes in skin appearance: shiny, hair loss and dryness
Unusual skin color changes: red, purple, blue or paler
Changes in toenails: thickened, brittle and discolored nails
Cramp in the calf when walking
Increased skin temperature
Cramps in the legs or burning in the feet at night
Numbness in the legs or feet
Pins and needles, tingling, burning or unexplained pain in the legs or feet
Loss of sense of balance
Change in foot shape
Unusually cold feet
Unusually warm feet