Our lower back is a structure that supports our weight, transmits load from the hips to the legs, and allows our torso to move during our daily activities. In our lower back, there are 5 vertebrae, cartilage pads (discs) that link these vertebrae, joint structures, and soft tissues that support them. The lumbar vertebrae, like the rest of the spine, operate as guardians for the spinal cord and nerve roots in addition to contributing to movement and load-bearing properties. The lumbar vertebrae are innervated by nerves that control leg muscle control, sensation, and urine, fecal, and sexual functions.
Causes of low back pain
Low back pain can be caused by any event that occurs in the vertebrae, discs, or soft tissues of the lower back. Today, low back discomfort is one of the most common factors restricting people's daily activities. It is estimated that 80% of the world's population has had at least one episode of low back pain at some point in their lives. Low back pain ranks second only to heart disease among chronic diseases in developed societies and is the fifth leading cause of surgical treatment. Low back pain is most common in the 20-40s. Low back pain can be divided into 2 groups: acute and chronic. In acute low back pain, the pain usually decreases within a few days and disappears completely after a few weeks. If the pain persists for more than 3 months, it is called chronic (persistent) low back pain. In 90% of patients with low back pain, the complaint resolves spontaneously within the first 4 weeks, but only in 5% does it become chronic. In most cases of low back pain, the cause of the pain is determined by history and clinical examination, and nothing can be found in auxiliary tests and radiologic examinations.